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Обратна иновация

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Reverse InnovationПод "обратна иновация" разбираме иновации създадени първо в по-малко развити страни, след това разпространили се и във високо индустриализирани държави.

Това, което е характерно за първите описани случаи на обратна иновация е непреодолимото желание на един лидер да намери начин за решаване на някакъв проблем, като не се остави да бъде спрян от това, че живее в по-ниско развита и индустриализирана страна.

Много от първите описвани случаи са от сферата на здравеопазването, където това желание е било най-силно, защото качеството на живот на много хора е зависило от намирането на ново решение . Това само още веднъж доказва, че великите и иновативни решения се намират, когато един човек има много силно и непреодолимо желание да промени нещо в света около себе си и усещането, че трябва да го направи въпреки всички пречки.

В много от описаните случаи въпросните иновации са се случили в резултат от търсене на по-евтин начин за правене на нещо вече известно, водени от силно желание за предоставяне на услуга или продукт за местното население, което не би било достъпно на цените, на които тази услуга или продукт се предлага във високо-развити държави. Веднъж създадена обаче, подобна иновация започва да представлява интерес и във високо-развитите държави, които също търсят по-ефективни решения. Важното тук е, че не винаги говорим за огромни научни открития, които изискват много средства - понякога става дума за поглеждане към нещо известно с нови очи и със силното желание да намерим начин да го направим достъпно за по-широк кръг от хора.

Ако знаете за случаи, в които нещо е било създадено в България и после е придобило популярност и успех в по-високо индустриализирани страни, моля публикувайте информация за него на следната страница: https://www.facebook.com/ReverseInnovationHub. Целта на тази страница е да разпространява информация за подобни примери и по този начин да служи като мотивация за млади предприемачи и лидери!

Ако искате да прочетете повече за случаи от световната практика, потърсете информация за т.н. Reverse Innovation. Ако искате да следите блога на Vijay Govindarajan по темата, посетете следната сраница: http://www.tuck.dartmouth.edu/people/vg/blog.


Кратък линк към настоящата публикация: http://ld.rs/4KeW

Повече информация за Наталия Благоева

Наталия Благоева
Scaling the impact of people on a mission. МЕНИДЖМЪНТ КОНСУЛТАНТ в областта на лидерството, организационната стратегия и култура, управление на многообразието, развитие на таланта, бизнес интуиция и геймификация. 25 ГОДИШЕН МЕЖДУНАРОДЕН ОПИТ СЪС СВЕТОВНИ ВОДЕЩИ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ | 20 ГОДИНИ ОПИТ В РАЗВИТИЕ И МЕНТОРСТВО НА ЛИДЕРИ И ТАЛАНТИ | ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ: Certified Management Consultant (CMC) | Certified Cultural Transformations Tools (CTT) Consultant with the Barrett Values Centre | Certified Professional in Learning & Performance (CPLP, ATD) | Executive MBA | Основател и Директор на Eudaimonia Solutions | eudaimonia.solutions | natalia@eudaimonia.solutions

6 коментара

  1. ?Academic Essay Crafting: Some Guidelines
    The following is based upon an original document by Bethan Davies with revisions by John McKenna, D. Robert Ladd, and Ellen G. Bard on the School of Philosophy, Psychology, and Language Sciences on the University of Edinburgh.
    Quality essay composing really is a ability acquired rather than learnt. Approaches vary from person to person and will depend on one’s practical knowledge in essay producing, almost to the point where a style of composing will be as individual as a signature.
    You may presently be relatively comfortable creating essays and if so, you will have a definite feel really for what performs for you. If, within the other hand, you will be new with the game or do not seem to be to be obtaining the marks you feel really your efforts deserve, then we encourage you to definitely follow the advice in Section two on preparation and research. The same applies to Section 3 on structure and Section four on style, but the contents of these sections may also serve as a basis for self-assessment-even with the experienced-before that final draft is submitted. There exists a checklist within the end-use it! You should spend special attention to Section four.3 on stylistic conventions, as you can find minimal scope for flexibility on these matters within just a particular academic discipline.
    Throughout this short guide we make use of the term “essay” to mean any sort of academic creating assignment you hand in for a course. In economics you will be required to provide an assortment of written assignments, and only a few of them will be “essays” inside of the feeling that the term may well be employed in the history or literature course. Others will be concise reports of experiments or descriptions of economic or other knowledge. However, they are all referred to herein as “essays,” and most from the principles of clarity, organization and presentation apply to them all.
    Enable yourself enough time. Any time you deliver the results continuously on your essay right up to the deadline, there exists a very great likelihood that you simply won’t have done yourself (or the topic) justice. So make a rough timetable. Aim to have what you subjectively come to feel is really a “final” draft at least two days before the submission deadline. Make use of the remaining days to evaluation your operate at well-spaced intervals. This will help you glimpse way more objectively at your private operate.
    First-plan! Really don’t just commence producing, and hope that it will job out for starters time: lots of people identify that their ideas and arguments cultivate during the course of action of planning and/or producing. The whole course of action is very a good deal an iterative one particular and you should expect to be producing much more than a person draft. As that you are required to method your show results electronically, editing and re-drafting is known as a relatively simple and easy task.
    Doable selections (among most) for becoming started include:
    • list the points you intend to cover, then try to group them according to some well-known factor
    • summarize your answer to the question in a single line, then list the evidence you have for that summary (strongest evidence very first?)
    • commence composing and see what develops
    • summarize every intended paragraph in a single line, and see how they relate to the question
    • craft a series of separate paragraphs (one particular for each individual area you would like to cover), each individual over a separate piece of paper, and then try to order them
    • leave the introduction and summary until you’ve written the rest on the essay (a formidable favourite)
    two.3 Relevance to Question
    Although this may sound obvious, a lot of essays lose marks for containing material that’s simply irrelevant. Make sure which you study the assignment sheet thoroughly and are sure about what it asks for before you commence reading for your essay. As you will be reading, bear in mind what sort of material you’re searching for in order to address the assigned topic. Even once you do come across a lot of interesting material when researching for the essay, be selective. Interesting material won’t gain you extra marks unless it is relevant.
    Remember that relevance does not only apply to the material you use, but also the way you use it. Summarizing just about every relevant research area for an essay does not constitute an answer: you really have to orient the material you use towards the assigned topic. Part of what you wish to learn consists of relationships among ideas.
    It is in addition a quality policy to check your final draft with this in mind. Browse every single paragraph and ask yourself whether it addresses the topic. It is all too uncomplicated to drift absent from the point.
    3. Structure and Content
    An important talent of essay crafting is learning how to structure what you should say. All essays should have an introduction along with a summary. In most cases these will be your to begin with and last paragraphs, respectively, although once you’ve mastered the art of essay crafting, you will be able to vary your structure somewhat. In a very technical write-up, the order is often prescribed or logically dictated by the material (e.g. methods before final results). But even inside a technical write-up the introductory section may itself be like a mini-essay that aims to make a point.
    As part of your introduction, say:
    • what the essay is about; e.g. “In this essay I shall consider the question of ….”
    • what material you intend to cover; e.g. “I will glance at ….”
    • what argument you intend to follow; e.g. “I will suggest that ….”
    Finally, enable it to be clear where your introduction ends also, the rest of your essay begins; i.e. get started a new paragraph!
    3.1.two Body on the Essay
    A well-structured essay should consist of the series of paragraphs that progress logically through the series of points you intend to cover. Obviously, the difficult part is working out what that order should be. In essence, an essay is undoubtedly an argument, so your structure should be in accordance with the particulars of your argument.
    Remember that great essays really do not just give evidence for his or her point of watch, but also demonstrate why opposing views are flawed. Imagine a reader, then try to predict their objections to your argument, and then demonstrate why they are wrong. 3.1.3 Summary
    Your essay should have a definite ending, around the type of the summary. Below you should summarize what it tends to be that you have claimed in your own essay, stating what your answer to the question is and why. Often, there’s no common answer (which is why you’re producing an essay, and not a two-mark answer with a class examination), so you should state what the complexities from the issue are. You may feel really that you just are repeating yourself, since the body of your essay should have made your argument clear previously, but the reader will appreciate a decent summary.
    Originality is 1 on the hardest things to attain in an essay, but any effort you make at being original will be noticed by the marker. This doesn’t mean which you be required to invent a new theory every time you publish an essay. You’ll be able to nevertheless get originality within a range of smaller ways, these as making up your unique examples rather than utilizing ones straight from books, relating popular examples to your private working experience, or perhaps trying to make new connections involving particular viewpoints.
    You may not be the earliest to make these connections, but that doesn’t make them any less valid or interesting. This shows the person reading your essay that you choose to have engaged with the topic and really thought about it, rather than just regurgitating what you look at while in the course textbook, or whatever.
    Reading through some other books or papers furthermore to, say, the two or three that everybody else is implementing, is in addition probably to help you to definitely gain a wider perspective around the question you’re studying. All published academic functions contain bibliographies that can point you to definitely other papers. Make use of the on-line library catalogue to search for your books held by the University Library. In some areas, the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), now on hand from the on-line University Library (through Online of Science, for example), will permit you to definitely search for any publication mentioned inside the bibliography of any journal article. It will also let you search for any publication citing your focus on article in its bibliography.
    In an Honours essay, you should take a look round a bit to see whether anyone else has presently made an argument that you just believe you have been the first of all to operate out. Your Essay Supervisor will be able to direct you towards the right material. Never be discouraged when you obtain this sort of work-develop it.
    The use of examples is essential to your reputable essay. Every point you make should be supported by just one or two very good examples. But remember that making use of an example is in itself not sufficient to guidance your point of check out. Be explicit in stating why this example is strong evidence of your argument. Also, you never will want a lot of these: a particular pertinent example is far increased effective than three mediocre ones.
    Inside case of economic examples, you should also be very careful to make clear the context. Being able to analyze the different factors that can shape a particular situation is really an important ability to acquire.
    Often you will be given a word limit, or suggested size for an essay. Use this advice to gauge the stage of detail, and degree of coverage that’s expected. Obviously, an essay of 1500 words will have a narrower focus and will require greater summarizing skills than a single of 3000 words. Being able to extract what is important about a particular paper, and to summarize it, is definitely an invaluable talent that is generally applied in all kinds of real-world situations (to implement the presently fashionable jargon, it is really a “transferable skill”). Note that markers will penalize essays that are too extensive. Keeping to the limit tells the marker that you choose to understand what is important inside your argument.
    four Presentation and Style
    Although there is absolutely no strict convention on layout, do consider how the essay looks for the web site. Several studies have demonstrated that presentation does have a subconscious effect on markers, even if they’re not explicitly marking on that criterion.
    For longer essays with distinct sections, you may consider employing headed sections as in these guidelines. Doing so may disrupt the flow for the essay, however. For essays of less than 1500 words, it is unlikely you will absolutely need to section.
    You may come to feel that a diagram could help illustrate a point. This has the included effect of breaking up sizeable chunks of textual content that may be subconsciously off-putting to the reader. But beware the additional complexities involved in formatting your document (should you incorporate the diagram electronically) or the included time required to insert a diagram by hand. Some versions in the software on the market on public machines generate graphics that cannot be printed from other machines. Give yourself time to take a look at for potential glitches of this sort.
    What constitutes “good style” is just one belonging to the hardest things to state explicitly, and is perhaps the criterion most open to personal variation. But there are some points which you should bear in mind. A single of these points is the fact you happen to be composing an academic essay, and as this kind of, are required to try a reasonably formal style of crafting. This does not mean you should be obscure, or use impossibly prolonged sentences with multisyllabic words, but you should avoid being overly colloquial.
    Further importantly, you should:
    • Be explicit . Remember that you simply should be creating your essay for someone who has a general background from the general subject area, but doesn’t necessarily specialize in that particular topic. Also, really don’t leave the reader to infer your conclusions-state them explicitly.
    • Use sign-posts . Make your essay easier to check out by being explicit (that word again!) about your essay structure; e.g. “In the next section I will …” or “As I have argued previously ….”
    • Avoid extended sentences . Be wary of convoluted syntactic structures-they would most likely be fun to analyze, nonetheless they tends to be difficult to browse through. Go for short sentences: as soon as you have a sentence over three or four lines prolonged, then it probably needs to be broken up into simpler structures.
    • Avoid lengthy paragraphs . Try to avoid crafting paragraphs over ten or 15 lines longer. Lengthy blocks of textual content have a negative subconscious effect around the reader. Of course, points on occasion take a little more room to make, but in the event you look for yourself composing a extended paragraph, ask yourself: “Should I break this point in to sub-points?” You could then connect the sub-points with linking sentences within the beginning and/or finish of every belonging to the smaller paragraphs.
    • Do not imagine that the reader knows what you mean . At any time you imagine a reader, really do not imagine the marker, whose knowledge you will probably exaggerate! Imagine another student into your class. This should help you to definitely be explicit about definitions and be helpful in relation to sign-posting.
    Basically, think of all the reading you did for that essay you’ve just written: what made every single on the articles and/or books easier or harder to browse through?
    four.3 Stylistic Conventions
    Finally, there are a variety of points of grammar and style you should be aware of, including a variety of detailed conventions you should follow. These are discussed around the following subsections.
    four.3.1 Style and Grammar
    Several stylistic points are listed below. Use your personal judgement: really do not use complicated structures simply to avoid these sorts, but do not deliberately wave the red flag if you should never have got to. Your tests should be “Does it sound awkward?” and “Is my meaning clear?”
    • Split infinitives . “To boldly go ….” This is regarded as a classic case of the puristic proscription that bears tiny relationship to the way most people talk and craft. Even now, it is useful to practice phrasing your sentences so as to avoid split infinitives, since for crafting that you just do outdoors Economics courses they may be ruled out completely.
    • Use on the primary person . In any academic creating the repeated usage of “I” is inappropriate (as is the repetition of any word or phrase), but for nearly all people it is preferable to try “I” occasionally instead of “the writer” or similar phrases. As with split infinitives, however, note that some conventions completely prohibit the use of “I”. In reports of experimental succeed, “we” is often seen as a first-rate substitute for “I”. This is partly due to the fact that the use with the initial person is increased necessary to describe the experimental procedure, but also, the use in the plural makes a statement of belief less a personal opinion, and even more a collective viewpoint. The use of your “editorial ‘we’” is therefore often acceptable in a very piece of academic creating.
    • Masculine generic terms . The use of masculine generic terms this kind of as “man” and “he” to refer to the two males and females is now avoided in most academic composing. A useful alternative to generic “he” is to work with plural constructions that will permit the use of “they.”
    Poor spelling, reasonably or not, gives the impression of carelessness and laziness. Since your essay will be processed electronically, utilize the spell checker! But never rely on it exclusively-proofread your essay carefully in addition.
    Never quote for your sake of quoting. You should only utilize a quotation if you end up unable to say something even better, not just as you can’t be bothered to summarize a point of see! For example, if an author has summed up their argument in a single pithy phrase, then it may be worth repeating.
    If you ever do use quotations, they should be enclosed in quote marks “like this.” Longer quotations-if absolutely necessary-may also be established off from the main body belonging to the textual content, slightly indented and perhaps inside a slightly smaller type size.
    All quotations should always be referenced by author, date, and web site variety as exemplified below.
    Any books or articles that you just quote from (or even just mention) must be correctly referred to in each the body within the essay and within a references or bibliography section in the conclusion of your paper. NB . In economics (as in more and more other fields), footnotes are never applied solely to give bibliographic references. Footnotes should be employed, if in any way, only to incorporate further comments that stand effectively outdoors the main thread from the body from the textual content.
    Once you quote or refer to some operate, give the author’s name, date of publication, and (if applicable) the web page variety(s) inside the body in the textual content. With the stop in the essay include a references section listing alphabetically by author surname all the publications that you choose to have mentioned on the course of your essay. The purpose of the references section is to allow people to pick the books and articles to which you have referred in aid if further study and to exhibit clearly how your essay links to the relevant literature. It is not just so that the marker can see how considerably you’ve read through!
    Inside Honours Essay guidelines (Section 8, “Format” subsection) it’s possible to unearth how the Department prefers you to definitely format your references the two during the textual content and inside a references section on the stop of an essay. Unless you’re told otherwise by the course instructor, utilize the Departmental conventions.
    Essay producing is often a ability worth perfecting since the techniques you will want to master in order to write down wonderful essays generalize very very well to the world exterior academia. Elements of the solid essay also relate to other communicative skills, this kind of as giving talks or presentations.
    Spending time improving your skills now certainly won’t be time wasted. Suitable graduates are valued for his or her ability to communicate and express themselves fluently through the written word. Learning to structure an argument, summarize your resources, and improve your crafting style now will stand you in first-rate stead, prolonged after you escape from the realm from the red pen!
    • Has the spelling been checked?
    • Is the references section correct? Is all cited material referenced? Are there any materials which you haven’t cited (and should therefore be expunged).
    • Is the word duration OK?
    • Are my name, student range, instructor’s name, etc. on it?
    • Are any needed handwritten symbols, diagrams, etc. included?
    • Could someone scan my introduction and have a rough idea with the body?
    • Could someone learn my summary and know what they would have learnt had they look over the body?
    • Had been any of my arguments unsubstantiated or biased?
    • Did I leave the essay for a small number of hours and then study it again from the even more goal perspective?
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